With an aim to upgrade the infrastructure in Indian cities, the government of India launched the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), in December 2005. The programme envisaged a total expenditure of over USD 20 billion over a period of seven years. The programme was later extended for two more years, till 2014. The mission was primarily related to the development of urban spaces, by upgrading infrastructure. The JNNURM mission proclaimed certain objectives for every state.
For West Bengal, a number of reforms were suggested, under which Asansol and Kolkata were the mission cities, as per the JNNURM.
See also: All about the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)
JNNURM West Bengal: Key reforms
- Effective implementation of decentralisation initiatives, as envisaged in the Constitution (74th) Amendment Act, 1992.
- Repeal of the Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act, 1976.
- Reform of rent control laws, by balancing the interests of landlords and tenants.
- Rationalisation of stamp duty, to reduce it to a maximum of 5% within seven years.
- Enactment of a community participation law, so as to institutionalise citizens’ participation in local decision making.
- Creating an association of elected municipalities with the function of city planning.
See also: West Bengal land information using Banglarbhumi
The following reforms are to be taken at a municipal level:
- Introduction of a system of e-governance, using IT applications, GIS and MIS, for various urban services.
- Reform of property tax with GIS and arrangements for its effective implementation, so as to raise collection efficiency to 85%.
- Levy of reasonable user charges, with the objective that the full cost of operation and maintenance should be collected within seven years.
- Provision of basic services, including security of tenure at affordable prices, to the urban poor.
Following are some of the optional reforms:
- Revision of bye-laws to streamline the process of granting approvals for construction of buildings, development of sites, etc.
- Simplification of the procedural and legal frameworks, for converting agricultural land to non-agricultural purposes.
- Introduction of property title certification.
- Earmarking of at least 25% developed land in housing projects for the economically weaker sections and low-income groups, with a system of cross-subsidisation.
- Introduction of computerised registration of land and properties.
- Making rainwater harvesting mandatory in all buildings through a revision of the bye-laws and adoption of water conservation measures.
See also: All about the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY)
What is JNNURM?
The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission was a government scheme, which was intended to upgrade the infrastructure in Indian cities.
How many mission cities are covered under JNNURM?
There were 63 mission cities under the JNNURM.
What is BSUP?
BSUP or Basic Services to Urban Poor is a sub-scheme of the JNNURM, which is aimed at tackling urban problems, including urban poverty.