Bigha: All about land area measurement unit

A commonly used land area measurement unit, bigha is popularly used across northern India. Here we explain how Indian states understand bigha, area conversion into other units and commonly asked questions about bigha

In a vast country like India, each state has its own unique language. The same goes for land measurement units. Since land is a state subject, each state may have its own set of local area measurement units, apart from the generally accepted area measurement units (such as sq ft or sq metre, etc.). In north India, for example, bigha is among the most common land measurement units.


What is bigha?

Bigha is a traditional unit of measurement of land. It is commonly used across northern parts of India, Bangladesh and Nepal or in areas where there has been a migration from India, such as Fiji. In India, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,  Jharkhand, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal use bigha as a measure. However, it is interesting to note that in all these places, there is no one standard understanding of the term.

Although the usage of bigha as a unit of measurement dates back to a long time ago, the unit is still used across the country with regional variations.

See also: Bigha to acre calculator


How much is 1 bigha in Indian states

StateUnderstanding of 1 bigha
Assam14,400 sq ft
Bihar27,220 sq ft
Gujarat17,427 sq ft
Haryana27,225 sq ft
Himachal Pradesh8,712 sq ft
Jharkhand27,211 sq ft
Punjab9,070 sq ft
Rajasthan1 pucca bigha = 27,225 sq ft

1 kuchha bigha = 17,424 sq ft

Madhya Pradesh12,000 sq ft
Uttarakhand6,804 sq ft
Uttar Pradesh27,000 sq ft
West Bengal14348.29 sq ft

*You can also make this calculation using’s land unit converter.


Difference between pucca and kuchha bigha

In the table provided above, you may have noticed that in Rajasthan, there exists both pucca and kuchha bigha. The two units are also used in parts of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. While pucca or pakka bigha was comparatively more used, the kuchha bigha was usually used by landlords while dealing with their tenants. Both the measurements were ‘standardised’ by early landlords and vary from place to place.

Commonly asked questions on bigha conversion into other units

NoFAQBigha conversion
1How many bigha is in one acre?One acre is 1.62 bigha.
2How many bigha in one hectare?One hectare is 4 bigha and consequently, two hectare is 8 bigha and five hectare is 20 bigha. (Check out Bigha to hectare conversion)
3How many sq ft in one  bigha?One bigha is 26,910.66 sq ft.

Use our Bigha to square feet calculator

4How many square yards in one bigha?One bigha is 2,990 sq yd.

Convert Bigha to square yard

5How many square metres in one bigha?One bigha is 2,500 sq mt.

See also: Bigha to square meter

6How many marla in one bigha?One bigha is 0.46 marla.
7How many kanal in one bigha?One bigha is 4.94 kanal.

Convert Bigha to kanal

8How many biswa in one bigha?One bigha is 0.01 biswa.

Bigha to biswa calculator

9How many ground in one bigha?One bigha is 1.04 ground.
10How many aankadam in one bigha?One bigha is 34.73 aankadam.
11How many rood in one bigha?One bigha is 0.23 rood.
12How many chatak in one bigha?One bigha is 5.56 chatak.
13How many kottah in one bigha?One bigha is 37.38 kottah.
14How many cent in one bigha?One bigha is 61.78 cent.
15How many perch in one bigha?One bigha is 9.18 perch.
16How many guntha in one bigha?One bigha is 2.30 guntha.
17How many are in one bigha?One bigha is 2.32 are.

*Note: Some numbers may vary depending on the local understanding of bigha.


Why does bigha vary in different states?

It was only in 1778 that the French devised standard land measurement units. Prior to that, the local land measurements were popular. Natives still prefer using the age-old and familiar concept and understanding of bigha. This is true for all other locally used units of measurement, as well.


Zone-wise understanding of bigha

East India1 Bigha = 1,600 sq yd Assam and Bengal 
West India1 Bigha = 1,936 sq ydGujarat and parts of Rajasthan
Central India 1 Bigha = 1,333.33 sq yd Madhya Pradesh
North India1 Bigha = 900 to 3,025 sq ydAcross north India

Note: South India does not use bigha as a land measurement unit.


Other common area conversion factors

UnitConversion factor
1 sq ft144 square inches
1 Square Yard (sq yd)9 sq ft
1 Acre4,840 sq yd
1 Hectare10,000 sq mtr (or 2.47 acres)
1 Bigha968 sq yd
1 Bigha-Pucca3,025 sq yd
1 Biswa48.4 sq yd
1 Killa4,840 sq yd
1 Aankadam72 sq ft
1 Cent435.6 sq ft
1 Ground2,400 sq ft
1 kanal5,445 sq ft (8 Kanals = 1 acre)
1 Kuncham484 sq yd
1 Chatak180 sq ft
1 Guntha1,089 sq ft


How to convert bigha into other units easily?

Some of us may be very well versed, when it comes to area conversion. However, even then, local area measurements may vary. gives you a conversion tool free of cost. 

Simply click here to convert bigha into other units.


Is Bigha used for land measurement in south India?

Bigha, as you would have already noted is not used in southern India. In this part of the country, Kuncham, Guntha, Ground, Cent and Ankanam are more popularly used.


Bigha to acre conversion

Acre Bigha


Hectare to bigha conversion



Mukhya Mantri 1 Bigha Scheme

In Himachal Pradesh, the government has launched the Mukhya Mantri 1 Bigha Scheme that will empower about 1.5 lakh rural women, by providing them employment under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS). Under the scheme, a woman or her family owning up to one bigha land can grow a backyard kitchen garden. The move is aimed at easing the economic impact caused by the Coronavirus pandemic. Under the 1 Bigha Scheme, beneficiaries will be trained at various methods of cultivation to ensure maximum profits. 

The 1 Bigha Scheme will help the rural women earn Rs 1 lakh per year, which includes a daily wage of Rs 198. Every 15 days, this wage will be transferred to their Aadhaar-linked bank account. Gram Rozgar Sewaks, that is the government’s task force will monitor the progress of the scheme. In Himachal Pradesh, 1 Bigha is 752.51 sq metres.



What is a Bigha?

Bigha is a land measurement unit that is commonly used across northern India.

How many bigha in one acre?

One acre comprises of 1.62 bigha.

How many bigha in one hectare?

One hectare is equal to 4 bigha.


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