Local land measurement units in India

In this article, we will discuss the most common land measurement units used in various parts of India

While there are some standard land-measurement units used globally, some countries, including India, also use more locally popular benchmarks, which have been in practice for long. In this article, we will discuss the common land measurement units used in various parts of India, apart from the globally accepted benchmarks.


Common land measurement units used across the world

Square foot (sq ft)

The most commonly-used unit is a square foot (sq ft), which is equal to 0.11 of a square yard. Under the rules of the real estate law in India, developers have to notify the area in sq ft terms.

Check out the square feet to square meter calculator

An imperial unit used to measure area, sq ft is used across geographies to map the area at the time of property purchases. Countries where the usage of sq ft is most common include India, the US, the UK, Bangladesh, Canada, Ghana, Hong Kong, Liberia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Singapore.


Square yard

Larger than a sq ft, a square yard is made of 9 sq ft. The units is widely used across the globe to measure land, especially in residential real estate. In several Indian states, local governments use square yard as the standard value while fixing circle rates (in Rs per sq yard). In Haryana, for example, land rates in urban areas are fixed on a rupee per square yard basis by the state government.

Convert square yard to square feet


Square metre (sq mt)

Made of 10.76 sq ft, a square metre is also a common land measuring unit applied in India. The square metre, which is also often abbreviated as sq m or M2, is a unit of area measurement equal to a square measuring one metre on each side. By that calculation, it would take nearly 12 square metres to create the parking space for an average car.

Since square metre is a unit that measures area, these are avoided when measuring length or distance in one direction.

Check out square meter to square feet conversion



Counted among the oldest units applied across the world to measure vast tracts of land, the acre and has undergone a lot of changes along the way. Used in the imperial system of units and the US system, the modern acre is equal to 4,840 square yards, 43,560 square feet, 4,047 square metres and 0.4047 hectares. An acre could also be defined as an area one furlong long by 4 rods wide.

One acre consists of 43,560 sq ft.

Convert acre to hectare



Hectare, a commonly used unit of the metric system that is used to measure land and plots all across the world, goes by the symbol ha. Invented in the year 1795, the term hectare is a conjunction of the Latin words area and hect. One hectare is equal to 1,07,639 sq ft.

To have an understanding of the area covered, one can equate a hectare with a football field. It is about the size of a European football field.

See also: Hectare to acre conversion


Land measurement units in east India


It is mostly used in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Tripura and West Bengal. Dhur denotes different sizes, depending on the state where it is being used. In Bihar, it is equal to over 68 sq ft. In Tripura, it stands for 3.6 sq ft. The use of dhur is also common in Nepal.  

States where Dhur is used: UP, Bihar, Jharkhand and Tripura.

See also: Dhur to decimal calculator



Kattha  (or Katha) also has different values, ranging between 600 and 2,800 sq ft. A standard sq ft equivalent of the unit is 719 sq ft. Even though the use of katha has become obscure, as the usage of the metric system units became popular in India from the mid-20th century, locals in some northern and eastern states still use this term as a unit to refer to land area. Sates where the unit is still sometimes used include Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. Since there is no standardisation of this unit, it signifies various land sizes in these states. Apart from India, katha as a land measurement unit is also used in Bangladesh and Nepal.  In these countries as well, katha signifies varying land sizes.

States where Kattha is used: Assam, Bengal, Bihar and MP.

Katha to square feet conversion



Aside from being commonly used in the eastern state of West Bengal in India, chatak is also equally popular across neighboring and Bangladesh, for land measurement.  Aside from chatak, the use of Katha for area measurement purpose is also quite popular in West Bengal. One Chatak is equal to 45 sq ft.

States where Chatak is used: West Bengal

Use our Chatak to katha calculator



A Lecha denotes 144 sq ft.

States where Lecha is used: Assam


Local land measurement units in India


Land measurement units in north and west India


This unit, used in many states, denotes different sq ft numbers in different states. Basically, there is no standard value attached to Bigha and the value of the unit varies from state to state, as explained in the chart below:

State 1 Bigha in sq ft
Assam 14,400
Bihar 27,220
Gujarat 17,424
Himachal Pradesh 8,712
Madhya Pradesh 12,000
Rajasthan 27,255
UP 27,000
West Bengal 14,400

Convert Bigha to acre

Despite its wide popularity, bigha is not used anywhere in the southern part of the country, where more localised land measurement units are in vogue.



Quite commonly used in the northern part of India, a Gaj is made of 9 sq ft. While its usage is now mostly limited to the northern states in India, gaj was earlier used in various other parts of the Asian continent. The usage of the term was also seen in measuring textile during the Mughal and British periods in India.

States where Gaj is used: Delhi, Punjab and Haryana.



A biswa is actually the 20th part of a bigha. However, the value keeps differing considering the specific part of the state where the measurement is being applied. In the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh, for example, 20 biswas is equal to 1 pucca bigha while 10 biswas is equal to 1 kucha bigha. Depending on the state where it is used, one biswa could stand for 50 to 150 sq yards. There are 27,225 sq ft in 20 biswas. A biswa is 1,350 sq ft.

States where Biswa is used: UP, Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh.

Check out Biswa to square feet calculator



Traditionally used as units of measurement for farm land in India and Pakistan, killa is equal to 1 acre. In case a killa is measured rectangularly, it can be measured as 220 ft multiplied by 198 ft.  A Killa is equal to 43,560 sq ft of land. A killa is also equal to 5 bigha, or 8 kanaals.

States where Killa is used: Punjab and Haryana



Another unit that is used in parts of India as well as Pakistan, Kanal is commonly used in rural parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. A kanal is the same as 5,445 square foot. It is also equal to one-eighth of an acre.

States where Kanal is used: Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab.

Check out Kanal to acre conversion



Also known to be an equivalent of an acre, a Ghumao consists of 43,560 sq ft.

States where Ghumao is used: Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab.



A Sarsai is equal to 30.25 sq ft.

States where Sarsai is used: Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.



Marla is among the land measurement units that are common in the Indian subcontinent. However, the unit, which is most used in the northern states of Punjab and Haryana, is not as popular as other local units such as bigha or gaj or international units such as acre or hectare. A marla consists of 272.25 sq ft.

States where Marla is used: Punjab and Haryana.

Use our calculator to convert Marla to acre


Land measurement units in south India


An Ankanam is equal to 72 sq ft.

States where Ankanam is used: Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.



A Guntha stands for 1,089 sq ft.

States where Guntha is used: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra.



A Kuncham is equal to 4,356 sq ft.

States where Kuncham is used: Andhra Pradesh.



A ground has 2,400 sq ft in it.

States where ground is used: Tamil Nadu.

Ground to cent conversion



A cent is equal to 435.6 sq ft.

States where cent is used: Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Use the Cent to square feet calculator



What are common global land measuring units in India?

These include acre, square foot, square metre, square yard and hectare.

What are common local land measuring units in India?

These include Bigha, Dhur, Chatak, Gaj, etc.


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