Commonly used land and revenue record terms in India

We look at 50 terms commonly used in India’s land and revenue record system and find out what they mean in layman’s terms

India’s land record system was primarily organised during the Mughal period. Although a lot has changed since then, vis-à-vis land and revenue record keeping in India, the terminology remains much the same, with many terms having their roots in Arabic, Persian and Hindi. We look at such terms commonly used in India’s land and revenue record system and find out what they mean in layman’s terms.

While there are numerous land and revenue record terms in India, some are referred to more often than others, especially if you are trying to check land records online. Here are some of the top commonly used terms.


Top 10 land record terms

Term Hindi English
Jamabandi/Fard जमाबन्दी It is the records of rights (RoR), containing information about the land, its owners and its cultivators, etc.
Khata खाता Khata describes all landholding of a family or individuals.
Khasra खसरा This is the survey number or the plot number assigned to a land parcel.
Khatauni खतौनी This document has details of about land holdings of cultivators.
Khewat खेवट This is a list of a landowner’s entire landholding.
Nakal नकल A copy of land records, a nakal contains every information about, land, ownership pattern, revenue, etc.
Khudkasht खुद काश्त This signifies that a land is being cultivates by its owners and not by cultivators.
Mauza मौजा This is the term used for village.
Bainama बैनामा This is the term used for sale deed.
Patta and pattanama पट्टा, पट्टानामा When a land parcel is given on lease, it is known as patta. Its mutation is known as pattanama.

See also: Know all about bigha


15 land ownership record terms

Here are some other complex terms you would come across, while checking land records in India:

Term Hindi English meaning


बटाई While this could loosely be translated into ‘division’, the system actually means an arrangement between the owner and cultivator, to grow crops and share it on certain terms.
Intkal इन्तकाल In land records, this stands for mutation, i.e., a change in ownership of land due to its transfer in the records of rights register. This change in title could be because of transfer by a registered deed, inheritance, survivorship, bequest or lease, in the records of rights.
Dakhil Kharij दाखिल ख़ारिज Property mutation is also known as dakhil-kharij.
Varsal वरसाल This is property mutation upon the death of or through a will of the owner.
Virasat विरासत Virasat is basically inheritance.
Hibba हिब्बा Mutation when the land is gifted to someone.
Tabdeel Malkiat तब्दील मलकियत Mutation, after the settlement of dispute by a court order.
Fard Badr फर्द बदर The process of making a correction in land record is known as fard badar.
Shajra Nasab शजरा नसब A table showing succession to ownership rights occurring from time to time.
Shajra kishtwar शजरा किश्तवार An updated version of an original map is known as shajra kishtwar.
Shajra parcha शजरा परचा A piece of cloth/paper used by patwaris, to draw maps incorporating all changes in land ownership.
Lagaan लगान If land is not cultivated by the owner, the person cultivating the land is liable to pay to the owner on agreed terms. This agreement is known as lagaan.
Lal dora लाल डोरा The non-agricultural land meant to be used by villagers to support them.
Bahissa barabar बहिस्सा बराबर Equal division of land.
Rafai-aam or revenue raasta रफाइ आम In government records of northern states, access roads are referred to as revenue rassta or rafai-aam.

See also: All about Jamabandi Haryana


25 common land and revenue records terms

Here are some other commonly used terms you must familiarise yourself with:

Term Hindi English meaning
Nambardar नंबरदार The village headman
Tatima ततीमा Division of plot
Khaka खाका Layout or sketch
Kurki कुर्की Impounding a property
Jamaan जमां Land tax
Hadbast number हदबस्त Village serial number
Had हद Village/land boundary
Kanungo कानूनगो Head of patwaris
Kashtkar कास्तकार Cultivator
Malguzari मालगुजारी Land tax
Medh मेण्ड Field boundary
Shajra शजरा Detailed village map
Tatima Shajra ततीमा शजरा Map prepared after the division of a plot
Paimaish पैमाईश Land measurement
Rapat रपट Mutation
Rahin रहन Mortgage Deed
Marusi मौरूसी Permanent cultivator
Mukhtiarnama मुख्तियारनामा Licence
Chahi चाही land irrigated using well water
Chak tashkhish चक तशखीश Land type
Kilabandi किलाबंदी Rectangular measurement of land
Khaka dasti खाक दस्ती Hand sketch of map
Patwari पटवारी Village accountant
Mustari मुस्तरी Land buyer
Musavi मुसावी Original map

See also: All about Bhulekh UP


Additional terms

Murrabha (मुर्राभा): Plot comprising of 25 acres of land.

Gair dakhildar (गैर दखिलदर): Unauthorised permanent possession.

Rehan (रेहन): Mortgage with possession.

Chakautha (चकौता): Land revenue in cash.

Gerinda (गेरिन्दा): The receiver of a gift.

Chak tashkhish (चक तशखीश): Land classification.

Do fasali (दो फसली): Land which produces two crops every year.

Barani (बरानी): Land that depends on rain for irrigation.

Chahi (चाही): Land that depends on wells for irrigation.

Baya (बाया): Seller of land.

Khaka dasti (खाक दस्ती): Hand sketch.

Najul (नज़ूल): land belonging to the government

See also: All about Bhumi Jankari Bihar



What is patta?

When a land is taken on lease, it is known as patta.

What is mauza?

A village is sometimes referred to as mauza, in land records.


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