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While buyers have to pay a one-time amount to become the owner of a property, they have to consistently pay smaller amounts in the form of property tax, to maintain their ownership over this asset. Hence, property tax is a direct tax imposed on property ownership. Property tax payments are a source of income for development and civic bodies in India. It is a compulsory levy that owners of immovable assets have to pay, on an annual basis. In this article, we discuss the details of property tax payment in India.
How do you calculate property tax
The owner of a property is liable to pay the tax levied by the local body (for example, the municipality) and such a tax is called the property tax. This tax may vary from one location to another and there are various other factors that determine the amount of property tax payable, such as:
- Location of the property.
- Size of the property.
- Whether the property is under-construction or ready-to-move.
- Gender of the property owner – there may be discounts for female owners.
- Age of the property owner – there may be discounts for senior citizens.
- Civic facilities provided by the municipal body in the locality.
Why do we have to pay property tax?
The local municipal body provides certain important services, like cleanliness in the area, water supply, maintenance of local roads, drainage and other civic facilities. Property tax allows the municipal bodies to get revenue, for funding all the services that it provides. It is one of the major sources of revenue for municipal bodies. If you do not pay property tax, then, the municipal body can refuse to provide the water connection or other services and it may also initiate legal action, to recover the due amount.
Importance of paying property tax
Property tax is calculated, according to the recent property valuation conducted by the municipal body. Only the owner of the property is liable for paying the property tax. Hence, if you are a tenant, you need not be concerned about it.
In case of a property dispute, the property tax receipt plays a crucial role, to prove ownership of property. Consequently, when you buy a property, the title of the property should be updated in the municipal records. However, until all the outstanding arrears are cleared, the name cannot be transferred to the new buyers. If the record is not updated in the municipal records, then, the name of the previous owner will continue to show in the tax receipt.
While getting the property registered in your name at the local municipal records, you may be asked to provide documents to prove the ownership of the property. The list of documents that you may need to include, to get the property name updated, are the sale deed copy, clearance from the society, duly filled application, photo and address proof, copy of receipt of the last paid property tax, etc. A property tax receipt is also a key document, for availing of loans, such as a loan against property.
Hence, you must make the property tax payments on time and keep your records updated, at the local municipal bodies. Certain establishments, such as places of worship, government buildings, foreign embassies, etc., are usually exempted from the property tax. Clean land is also exempted from property tax charges.
Note: The links are taken from the websites of the respective authorities, as on August 8, 2017.
Property tax calculation
Property tax in Pune
The PMC offers an online property tax calculator, in which you can enter the following details and ascertain the amount of tax you need to pay on your property: Location, Area, Usage, Type, Total plinth area, Construction year.
Property tax in Bengaluru
The BBMP follows a Unit Area Value (UAV) system, for calculating the amount of property tax.
Property Tax (K) = (G – I) x 20%
Where, G = X + Y + Z and I = G x H/100
(G = Gross unit area value; X = Tenanted area of property x Per sq ft rate of property x 10 months; Y = Self-occupied area of property x Per sq ft rate of property x 10 months; Z = Vehicle parking area x Per sq ft rate of vehicle parking area x 10 months; H = Percentage of depreciation rate, which depends upon the age of the property)
Property tax in Mumbai
The BMC uses the Capital Value System (CVS) to calculate property tax. The property tax is calculated as follows:
Capital value of property x Current property tax rate (%) x Weight for user category
The Maharashtra cabinet, on March 8, 2019, approved a proposal to exempt residential properties up to 500 sq ft, within the Mumbai municipal area limits, from property tax.
Property tax in Delhi
The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) uses the ‘Unit Area System’ for property tax calculation all over the city. The formula used for calculation is as follows:
Property tax = Annual value x Rate of tax
Annual value = Unit area value per sq metre x Unit area of property x Age factor x Use factor x Structure factor x Occupancy factor
Property tax in Chennai
The Greater Chennai Corporation (GCC) adopts the system of Reasonable Letting Value (RLV), for calculating the annual rental value of a property. The GCC takes the following factors into consideration, while assessing property tax:
- Plinth area
- Basic rate of the street in which the property is located
- Usage of the building (residential or non-residential)
- Nature of occupancy (owner or tenant)
- Age of the building
Property tax in Hyderabad
The rate of property tax in Hyderabad depends on the annual rental value, and the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) adopts a slab rate of taxation for residential properties.
The GHMC uses the following formula to calculate property tax:
Annual property tax = Plinth area x Monthly rental value per sq ft x 12 x (0.17 – 0.30) depending on MRV and based on slab rate of taxation – 10 per cent depreciation + 8 per cent library cess
Property tax in Kolkata
In March 2017, the new Unit Area Assessment (UAA) system for property tax calculation, was passed in the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC). The property tax calculation utilises the concept of multiplicative factors (MFs), to account for the many critical differences in houses within the same block.
The annual property tax under the UAA system is calculated, using the following formula:
Annual tax = Base Unit Area Value x Covered space/Land area x Location MF value x Usage MF value x Age MF value x Structure MF value x Occupancy MF value x Rate of tax (including HB tax)
(Note: HB tax refers to Howrah Bridge tax, which is applicable on properties lying in specific wards.)
Property tax in Ahmedabad
The Amdavad Municipal Corporation (AMC) calculates property tax payable on a property based on its capital value.The formula for manual calculation of property tax is as follows:
Property tax = Area x Rate x (f1 x f2 x f3 x f4 x fn)
f1 = weightage given to the location of the property
f2 = weightage given to the type of property
f3 = weightage given to the age of the property
f4 = weight assigned to residential buildings
fn = weight assigned to the user of the property
Property tax in Gurugram
The tax payable on properties in Gurugram is based on two factors – area and use (residential/non-commercial and commercial). The best way to make your property tax payment is online, on the Municipal Corporation of Gurugram (MCG) website. When you enter your unique Property ID number or your name and address, you will be shown the amount that you need to pay.
Property tax in Chandigarh
To calculate property tax for plots in Chandigarh, only the vacant plot area outside the plinth area of ground floor is be counted. This means that if the plot area is of 500 sq yards and the plinth area is 300 sq yards, the vacant plot area will be 200 sq yards, on which the tax will be calculated.
On residential lands and buildings of up to 300 sq yards, which are self-occupied, no tax is levied on persons, who had served, or are serving in the naval, military or air force, widows and differently-abled people.
Residents in Chandigarh can make online payment by searching the property details with their property ID. You can also make online payment by searching your property details with the house and sector number. Property tax can also be deposited at all e-Sampark Centres located in Chandigarh.
Property tax in Nagpur
Offering major relief to property tax defaulters in the city, at a time when a lot of financial stress has been caused by the prevailing Coronavirus pandemic conditions, the Nagpur Municipal Corporation (NMC) has launched the Abhay Yojana-2020. Under the scheme, the NMC will offer 80% rebate on the interest amount, if a citizen pays his property tax for the year 2020-21 between December 15, 2020 and January 14, 2021. The waiver would be down to 50% for those who pay their pending dues between January 14 and February 14, 2021. The NMC might also include water bills under this amnesty scheme later, it has said.
Property tax in Noida
In Noida, property tax forms a certain percentage of the annual assessed value of the property. Property taxes are calculated, based on this amount and the location of the property or land, by the Noida Authority.
Property tax in Kochi
Property tax is calculated based on the plinth area in Kochi. The charges are also different for panchayath, municipality and corporation areas.
Exemptions on property tax
Even though the rules are different from one state to another and one city to another, certain types of property owners enjoy rebates on their overall property tax liability.
Across states, properties that belong to religious organisations or governments, are not liable to pay any property tax.
Exemption is typically provided to:
- Senior citizens
- People with disabilities
- Former army, navy or any other personnel employed by defence services
- Families of martyrs from the Indian Army, BSF, police service, CRPF and fire brigade
- Educational institutes
- Agricultural properties
Note here that because of the large number of exemptions offered to various segments, local bodies in India often fail to generate the income for which the potential exists. For this particular reason, there have been various experts who have suggested that the local bodies roll back some of the waivers, in order to improve their earnings. However, as such a move would be very unpopular, the chances of existing waivers being rolled back are slim.
Penalty for non-payment of property tax
Authorities across the country impose penalties, on delays in property tax payments. Depending on the city where you reside, you will be liable to pay between 1% and 2% of the outstanding amount, as monthly penalty. The Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation charges 1% penalty per month on outstanding property tax while the penalty is 2% in Bangalore. A long delay in payments may also force authorities to attach your property and sell it, to recover losses.
How to pay property tax online?
Most of the civic authorities now accept online payment of property tax. This can be done through their official website. You should have your Property ID number to avail this service so that the payment can be mapped to your property.
How to calculate property tax online?
Land is a state subject and every city, based on the size of population and geographical area have deduced different property tax calculation formula for evaluating property tax amount.
Do I have to pay property tax on agricultural land?
Agricultural land is free from property tax payment liability in India.
(With inputs from Sunita Mishra)